Shackleton thought that a similar experience might allow Endurance to make a second attempt to reach Vahsel Bay in the following Antarctic spring. Before the war ended, two—Tim McCarthy of the open boat journey and the veteran Antarctic sailor Alfred Cheetham—had been killed in action, and Ernest Wild of the Ross Sea party had died of typhoid while serving in the Mediterranean. Shackleton had abandoned thoughts of taking the party on the less dangerous journey to Deception Island,[78] because of the poor physical condition of many of his party. General Information . Shackleton had served in the Antarctic on the Discovery expedition of 1901–1904, and had led the Nimrod expedition of 1907–1909. This territory had been discovered and named by William Speirs Bruce in 1904, during the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Wild's relatives and Shackleton's granddaughter, the Hon. At seven o'clock in the morning, they heard the steam whistle sound from Stromness, "the first sound created by an outside human agency that had come to our ears since we left Stromness Bay in December 1914". [71], The end of Patience Camp was signalled on the evening of 8 April, when the floe suddenly split. After Amundsen's South Pole expedition in 1911, this crossing remained, in Shackleton's words, the "one great main object of Antarctic journeyings". Shackleton's Captain reveals the truth behind the spectacular survival of all the crew and shows how one man's extra-ordinary skill and unsung heroism made it possible; Frank Worsley, Captain of the expedition ship, Endurance. By dawn they had ascended to 3,000 feet (910 m) and could see the northern coast. [119] Following a propaganda mission in Buenos Aires, Shackleton was employed during the last weeks of the war on special service in Murmansk, with the Army rank of Major. In January, all but two teams of the dogs (whose overall numbers had been depleted by mishaps and illness in the preceding months) were shot on Shackleton's orders, because the dogs' requirements for seal meat were excessive. The first journey on the ice resulted in the loss of ten of the party's 18 dogs and a frostbitten and generally demoralised shore party; a single, incomplete depot was their only achievement. [107] Neither the men nor the dogs were acclimatised, and the party was, as a whole, very inexperienced in ice conditions. In this new venture he proposed to sail to the Weddell Sea and to land a shore party near Vahsel Bay, in preparation for a transcontinental march via the South Pole to the Ross Sea. [59] They gave the name "Ocean Camp" to the flat and solid-looking floe on which their aborted march had ended, and settled down to wait. Frequently the boats were tied to floes, or dragged up onto them, while the men camped and waited for conditions to improve. Antarctica Edit. [62] It was about 250 miles (400 km) away, and Shackleton was anxious to reduce the length of the lifeboat journey that would be necessary to reach it. Shackleton over-ruled him. [41] On 17 January, the ship reached a latitude of 76° 27′S, where land was faintly discernible. They were thus able to begin the second season's depot-laying on schedule, in September 1915. More of the abandoned supplies were retrieved until, on 21 November, the ship finally slipped beneath the ice. [99], Wild initially estimated that they would have to wait one month for rescue, and refused to allow long-term stockpiling of seal and penguin meat because this, in his view, was defeatist. [41], They were now close to Luitpold Land, discovered by Filchner in 1912, at the southern end of which lay their destination, Vahsel Bay. [77], Elephant Island was remote, uninhabited, and rarely visited by whalers or any other ships. Shackleton informed the Morning Post that "this magnificent gift relieves me of all anxiety". The peak of Mount Haddington on James Ross Island remained in view as the party drifted slowly by. Another whaling station was known to be at Prince Olav Harbour, just six miles (10 km) north of Peggotty Camp over easier terrain, but as far as the party was aware, this was only inhabited during the summer months. This could provide a source of timber that might enable them to construct a seaworthy boat. [72] He had now decided they would try, if possible, to reach the distant Deception Island because a small wooden church had been reportedly erected for the benefit of whalers. The 1901 census shows that at that time, aged 27, he was serving as an able seaman on HMS Edinburgh, anchored in Sheerness Harbour. On 11 December 1911, a German expedition under Wilhelm Filchner had sailed from South Georgia, intending to penetrate deep into the Weddell Sea and establishing a base from which he would cross the continent to the Ross Sea. On 1 August, in a south-westerly gale with heavy snow, the ice floe began to disintegrate all around the ship, the pressure forcing masses of ice beneath the keel and causing a heavy list to port. Conceived by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition was an attempt to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. In 1914 Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans Antarctic Expedition headed for the South Pole and disaster. Against this gloomy background Shackleton initiated preparations for his proposed journey. Early next morning, 20 May, seeing Husvik Harbour below them, they knew that they were on the right path. They were finally rescued by Shackleton aboard the Chilean ship Yelcho. What we were encountering was fairly dense pack of a very obstinate character". [120] This occupied him until March 1919. He was cremated on 23 August 1939 at Braamfontein Cemetery in Johannesburg. The seas were open, and the ship was able to approach close to the island, in thick fog. [55] Other possibilities were Snow Hill Island, which had been Nordenskiöld's winter quarters and which was believed to contain a stock of emergency supplies,[56] or Robertson Island. [6], News of the deaths of Captain Scott and his companions on their return from the South Pole reached London in February 1913. Again the pack thwarted them. [73], The boats were surrounded by ice, dependent upon leads of water opening up, and progress was perilous and erratic. [49] This danger passed, and the succeeding weeks were quiet. [4] Frank Wild was educated at Bedford. History Documentary published by IMAX in 2001 - English narration [] Cover[] InformationShackleton's Antarctic Adventure is a giant-screen film that tells the extraordinary true story of polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton's now-legendary 1914-1916 British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. However, the contract ended and he was forced to seek employment elsewhere.[3]. Although the scope for activity was limited, the dogs were exercised (and on occasion raced competitively), men were encouraged to take moonlight walks, and aboard ship there were attempted theatricals. They would also make geological and other observations. [110], In the following months, the required depots were laid, at one-degree intervals across the Ross Ice Shelf to the foot of the Beardmore Glacier. Captain Frank Worsley signs on as Captain of the Endurance to navigate Sir Ernest Shackleton and his crew to Antarctica. By 1875, the Wild family had moved from Skelton to Stickford in Lincolnshire, and in late 1880 moved again to Wheldrake near York.[3]. 1, which started south on 10 June. On instructions from Shackleton, McNish immediately set about adapting the James Caird, improvising tools and materials. He was perhaps best known for his 1914–16 expedition, in which his ship, Endurance, was crushed by pack ice and the crew endured months of hardship before being rescued. A wireless apparatus was rigged, but their location was too remote to receive or transmit signals. A storm on 18 May delayed their start, but by two o'clock the following morning the weather was clear and calm, and an hour later the crossing party set out. The success of the voyage depended on the pin-point accuracy of Worsley's navigation, using observations that would have to be made in the most unfavourable of conditions. Thereafter she began moving with the pack in a northerly direction. To continue with its mission the stranded shore party had to re-supply and re-equip itself from the leftovers from earlier expeditions, notably Captain Scott's Terra Nova Expedition which had been based at Cape Evans a few years earlier. [13] He did not believe in appeals to the public: "(they) cause endless book-keeping worries". They had first met in 1918 when Wild was serving in Russia, and he had assisted her to obtain a passage home to England. [97], After Shackleton left with the James Caird, Frank Wild took command of the Elephant Island party, some of whom were in a low state, physically or mentally: Lewis Rickinson had suffered a suspected heart attack; Perce Blackborow was unable to walk, due to frostbitten feet; Hubert Hudson was depressed. After their ship Endurance was crushed in the ice in 1915, they made what is perhaps the most famous small-boat journey in history, across 800 miles of … [63], Conditions, however, had not improved since the earlier attempt. The documentary film also featured commentary from polar historian Dr. Huw Lewis-Jones, author Francis Spufford and explorer Sir Ranulph Fiennes. 1. [4] He was aware that others were in the field pursuing this objective. Wild led a brief cruise which brought them into sight of Elephant Island. [10], Shackleton called his new expedition the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, because he felt that "not only the people of these islands, but our kinsmen in all the lands under the Union Jack will be willing to assist towards the carrying out of the ... programme of exploration. This continued for the next two weeks, taking the party deep into the Weddell Sea. Jackleberry Press, 214 pages. After three frustrated attempts to rescue the Elephant Island group, Shackleton persuaded the Chilean Government to provide the Yelcho (a 36.5 meter steam tug) under Captain Pardo. These depots would be essential for the transcontinental party's survival, as the group would not be able to carry enough provisions for the entire crossing. The Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904, known officially as the British National Antarctic Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since the voyage of James Clark Ross sixty years earlier (1839-1843). Special occasions such as Empire Day were duly celebrated. I am equally sure Captain Scott never intended for anyone else to read his diaries, although I have done (for my new novel, Everland), as have countless other people, and there is a … The condition of the James Caird, and the physical state of the party, particularly Vincent and McNish, meant that the crossing was the only realistic option. They were above Possession Bay, which meant they would need to move eastward to reach Stromness. Last night we watched the recently restored footage that crewmember Frank Hurley shot during the epic Endurance polar expedition of 1914. [38], Endurance's progress was frustratingly slow, until, on 22 December, leads opened up and the ship was able to continue steadily southward. Shackleton therefore decided that Elephant Island, the nearest of the possible refuges, was now the most practical option. However, Shackleton considered it too far north of Vahsel Bay for a landing, "except under pressure of necessity"—a decision he would later regret. In April 2012, BBC2 broadcast "Frank Wild: Antarctica's Forgotten Hero", presented by Paul Rose, which placed Wild's achievements alongside those of Shackleton and the other explorers of the Heroic Age. [46] Shackleton now considered the possibility of finding an alternative landing ground on the western shores of the Weddell Sea, if that coast could be reached. "[5] The journey to South Georgia, the service and the interment were the subject of a BBC Radio 4 programme in the Crossing Continents series. [66] The final two teams were shot on 2 April, by which time their meat was a welcome addition to the rations. Butler said, "His ashes will now be where they were always supposed to be. When the expedition ship is crushed; Worsley's seamanship and navigational skills saves them all. Frank Arthur Worsley DSO OBE RD (22 February 1872 – 1 February 1943) was a New Zealand sailor and explorer who served on Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1916, as captain of the Endurance. The set comprises eight stamps in four se-tenant pairs with denominations of 60, 70 and 90 pence, and £1.15. [68] He then decided Deception Island might be a better target destination. [67] Meanwhile, the rate of drift became erratic; after being held at around 67° for several weeks, at the end of January there was a series of rapid north-eastward movements which, by 17 March, brought Patience Camp to the latitude of Paulet Island, but 60 miles (97 km) to its east. Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands was closer than South Georgia, but could not be reached, as this would require sailing against the strong prevailing winds. Wild's younger brother Ernest Wild also went on to become a Royal Naval seaman and Antarctic explorer, receiving a Polar Medal. With the offer of a job as a storekeeper on the Babrosco Mine near Klerksdorp from his friend Jack Scott, the mining magnate, he and Trixie finally found the peace they were seeking. It just took them a long time getting there. [18] Shackleton changed her name to Endurance, reflecting his family motto "By endurance we conquer". [8], Shackleton got support, however, from William Speirs Bruce, leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition of 1902–1904, who had harboured plans for an Antarctic crossing since 1908, but had abandoned the project for lack of funds. His first thought was for Paulet Island, where he knew there was a hut containing a substantial food depot, because he had ordered it 12 years earlier while organising relief for Otto Nordenskjöld's stranded Swedish expedition. To captain Endurance Shackleton had wanted John King Davis, who had commanded Aurora during the Australian Antarctic Expedition. Shackleton himself commanded the James Caird, Worsley the Dudley Docker, and navigating officer Hubert Hudson was nominally in charge of the Stancomb Wills, though because of his precarious mental state the effective commander was Tom Crean. The one with the year on the ice, and the whole deal where a malnourished and dyssentry-ridden Ernest Shackleton and two other guys ultimately rode in a dinky open lifeboat across 800 miles of stormy ocean, landed on an inhabited island but on the wrong … The position at abandonment was 69° 05′S, 51° 30′W. After problems arose in identifying this glacier, a nearby ice rise was renamed the McDonald Ice Rumples. Two days later, after a prolonged struggle with heavy seas and hurricane-force winds to the south of the island, the party struggled ashore at King Haakon Bay. Shackleton commented: "I had been prepared for evil conditions in the Weddell Sea, but had hoped that the pack would be loose. He was informed by the Admiralty that nothing was available before October, which in his view was too late. Six months later, at latitude 63° 37', the ship broke free, then sailed to South Georgia apparently none the worse for its ordeal. [29] Royal Navy Chief Petty Officer Tom Crean, who had been awarded the Albert Medal for saving the life of Lieutenant Edward Evans on the Terra Nova Expedition, took leave from the navy to sign on as Endurance's second officer; another experienced Antarctic hand, Alfred Cheetham, became third officer. [26] Gooch agreed to sail with Endurance as far as South Georgia. [60], The ice was not drifting fast enough to be noticeable, although by late November the speed was up to seven miles (11 km) a day. At the close of that first day, needing to descend to the valley below them before nightfall, they risked everything by sliding down a mountainside on a makeshift rope sledge. His new wife, Beatrice (Trixie) Lydia Rhys Rowbotham, was 47 years old and ten years his junior. [113] The survivors eventually reached Cape Evans, but then had to wait for eight further months. 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