But community spread is higher now. There are increased costs associated with adhering to public health guidance and plummeting state and local tax revenues to finance education, especially in school districts that are overburdened and underresourced.15 Giving schools the support they need to confront COVID-19 could result in safe, healthy, and thriving environments for children and youth and ultimately recognize education as a critical determinant of health. 198 shares. , Auger Primary schools in Covid-19 hotspots across England are to remain closed temporarily to help regain control of coronavirus, affecting hundreds of thousands of … Auger et al4 found that school closure was associated with a −62% (95% CI, −71% to −49%) relative change in COVID-19 incidence per week, corresponding to an estimated absolute difference of 423.9 (95% CI, 375.0 to 463.7) cases per 100 000. Donohue JM, Miller E. COVID-19 and School Closures. January 4, 2021. To mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), US states enacted a suite of nonpharmaceutical interventions. Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic—and the social distancing measures that many countries have implemented—have caused disruptions to daily routines. This makes digital literacy no longer a “nice to have” but a “need to have.” How do we ensure that every student can navigate.  et al. Griffith We’re thrilled to announce the launch of the all new EdWeek.org. Closure of schools during an influenza pandemic. Note: Historical data includes school- and district-level data collected from 3/9/2020 to 3/25/2020 and state-level data as of 5/15/2020. Kindergarten-grade 12 schools provide an essential source of meals and nutrition, health care including behavioral health supports, physical activity, social interaction, supports for students with special education needs and disabilities, and other vital resources for healthy development.11,12. Terms of Use| Where Are They Open? School nurses, administrators, parents, and educators need to perceive available data and the experts interpreting these data as trustworthy. Additionally, PUA is available only when a child is home because of a school closure that is a direct result of the COVID-19 public health emergency. Federal court sides with Ohio Christian schools suing to stop COVID-19 closures Federal court sides with Ohio Christian schools suing to stop COVID-19 closures. Over a 10-day period in March, all 50 US states closed kindergarten-grade 12 schools and childcare centers; nearly all colleges and universities followed suit. Issued on: 03/01/2021 - 08:51. Despite efforts by school districts to deliver online instruction, US school closures translated to lost learning for many students. The harms associated with school closures are profound. Nearly every state either ordered or recommended that schools remain closed through the end of the 2019-20 school year. A record number of children and youth are not attending school because of closures mandated by governments in an attempt to slow the spread of COVID-19. All 50 states closed schools in March 2020 despite uncertainty if school closure would be effective.  D, Willen  JM, Hammond  T, Psacharopoulous Map: Coronavirus and School Closures in 2019-2020.  JM, Morphew  A, Winter-Ebner Fourth, the study design and analysis are consistent with association and not causation.  et al; COVID-19 National Emergency Response Center, Epidemiology and Case Management Team.  KA, Shah Education Week would like to know how you are using our map of school building closures and reopening timelines. , Lempel Given the high stakes, high degree of uncertainty, and need for unbiased evidence, randomized studies should be used when possible. A student at The Social Justice Public Charter School in Washington raises two fingers in answer to a question during an in-person English language arts class. In many parts of the country this has become a contentious issue, with children, their families, and teachers expressing strong opinions about what is best for them. DeKalb district delays in-person school return amid COVID-19 surge Some DeKalb residents, including those pictured at this protest in December, may be relieved to know that the school … JAMA. To mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), US states enacted a suite of nonpharmaceutical interventions. ET, Our new world has only increased our students’ dependence on technology. sign up for alerts, and more, to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more, to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more, to make a comment, download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts and more, Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (1919-1959), Association Between Isolated Diastolic Hypertension Defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA Blood Pressure Guideline and Incident CVD, Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation and Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/04/29/the-covid-19-cost-of-school-closures/, https://services.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/clinical-guidance/covid-19-planning-considerations-return-to-in-person-education-in-schools/, https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/blog/what-will-it-take-stabilize-schools-time-covid-19, JAMAevidence: The Rational Clinical Examination, JAMAevidence: Users' Guides to Medical Literature, FDA Approval and Regulation of Pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018, Global Burden of Skin Diseases, 1990-2017, Health Care Spending in the US and Other High-Income Countries, Life Expectancy and Mortality Rates in the United States, 1959-2017, Medical Marketing in the United States, 1997-2016, Practices to Foster Physician Presence and Connection With Patients in the Clinical Encounter, US Burden of Cardiovascular Disease, 1990-2016, US Burden of Neurological Disease, 1990-2017, Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings, Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles.  DM. Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported. , Sharfstein Schools are considering hybrid online and in-person instruction, limiting after-school programs, and reconfiguring spaces, food preparation, and distribution. Although the findings from the study by Auger et al4 suggest a role for school closures in virus mitigation, school and health officials must balance this with academic, health, and economic consequences. COVID-19 planning considerations: guidance for school re-entry. Reporting/Analysis: Holly Peele & Maya Riser-Kositsky, with contributions from Education Week staffDesign/Visualization: Hyon-Young Kim, with contributions from Education Week staff. ET, The pandemic has disrupted lives and schooling for nearly a year, and some in the education space—and beyond—worry about lost learning. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff. All of these limitations create challenges for using these estimates to predict the potential effect of school closures in the coming school year. In this complex study, the authors used interrupted time series analyses of data from all 50 states on the timing of school closures (and other nonpharmaceutical interventions), and daily COVID-19 incidence and death counts. Nations introduce lockdowns, curfews and school closures to fight Covid-19 resurgence. Zoom in to see the status of individual states. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. What will it take to stabilize schools in the time of COVID-19? Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below. Importance: In the US, states enacted nonpharmaceutical interventions, including school closure, to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). ... Find publicly reported state data on COVID-19 cases in schools and information on the types of … Click here to access the page. 2020;324(9):845–847. Schools also need federal financial support to meet the dual threats posed by COVID-19. A key challenge is that these other outcomes are likely more diffuse, accrue over a longer time horizon, may have consequences that last decades, and are more difficult to count than COVID-19 outcomes, including cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, which are measured in real time and are widely reported. There has rarely been a more important time for open discussion and collaboration with a goal of reaching consensus on reopening schools, while protecting the health and well-being of students and educators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that children from low-income families depend more on school-based services, and their families and their schools have less economic resources to cope with disruptions, school closures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 could significantly widen inequalities.  SJ, Croker  RM, Russell Health practitioners involved in caring for children should consider formal partnerships with their local schools to help guide reopening and offer micro-level adjustments based on available information. Glenn Beck shares emotional tale about how COVID-19 school closures hit home By Carlos Greer. School Districts’ Reopening Plans: A Snapshot, The Coronavirus Spring: The Historic Closing of U.S. Schools, National Survey Tracks Impact of Coronavirus on Schools: 10 Key Findings, DATA: State Dashboards on COVID-19 in Schools and Instructional Models. Ontario extends elementary school closures until Jan. 25 amid rising COVID-19 infections By Robert Benzie Queen's Park Bureau Chief Thu., Jan. 7, 2021 timer 3 min. Even though schools in better-resourced neighborhoods transitioned to online instruction without significant barriers, schools in less-resourced neighborhoods confronted countless inequities in instruction due to limited access to devices and the internet. The urgency and challenge of opening K-12 schools in the fall of 2020. By Ryan Foley, Christian Post Reporter Follow | Tuesday, January 05, 2021. Second, the analysis does not elucidate mechanisms through which school closures might affect viral transmission. Get free access to newly published articles. Map: Coronavirus and School Closures (2020, March 6). Meara Although the evidence on effectiveness is mixed, school closures have been promoted as effective mitigation strategies during pandemics.2,3 Understanding the effect school closures had on COVID-19 outcomes in the spring of 2020 is crucial for informing preparations for the fall. A school is not closed as a direct result of the COVID-19 public health emergency after the date the school year was originally scheduled to end. The long-run effects of teacher strikes: evidence from Argentina. School officials should consider findings from Auger et al4 in the context of an evolving evidence base on SARS-CoV-2.  ER, Richards Bringing students back to school for in-person instruction may be feasible with a precision public health approach. Corrections will be made as we learn of them, and will be included in the next update. In each case, we’re using the latest NCES data that’s available.  YJ, Choe According to the World Health Organization, "Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans.In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory … A recent National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) committee reported that less than 5% of reported cases have been among those younger than 18 years, and concluded that children with COVID-19 are more likely than adults to have mild or no symptoms.5 However, there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the role of children and youth in transmission of SARS-CoV-2, leading the NASEM report to conclude “there is insufficient evidence with which to determine how easily children and youth contract the virus and how contagious they are once they do.” Without a significant advance in evidence on these points, school administrators will be left to make high-stakes decisions without certainty. The authors also reported that school closure was associated with a −58% (95% CI, −68% to −46%) relative change in mortality per week, corresponding to an estimated absolute difference in mortality of 12.6 (95% CI, 11.8 to 13.6) deaths per 100 000. to download free article PDFs,  S, Principi ©2020 Editorial Projects in Education, Inc. At their peak, the closures affected at least 55.1 million students in 124,000 U.S. public and private schools. Rather than a one-size-fits-all recommendation, school districts should rely on best available evidence including local SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, policies and practices regarding mask wearing, and risk of transmission among children of different ages.14 Interventions need to be developmentally appropriate and flexible enough to make corrections, with a preference for in-person instruction for younger children for whom virtual learning presents challenges (even for typically developing children). By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our, 2021 American Medical Association. , Viner The analyses compared the change in outcomes before and after school closure, adjusting for state-level measures of testing capacity, population density, health status, and social vulnerability. As we move beyond test scores to a more holistic picture of students and school, Wed., January 13, 2021, 2:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. Explore the table below for detailed information about closures at the state level. Association between statewide school closure and COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the US. To contribute data or information, use the comments below. Accessed July 22, 2020. Corresponding Author: Julie M. Donohue, PhD, Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto St, Crabtree Hall A635, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (jdonohue@pitt.edu). Ichino  NM, Wachtel First, school closures were enacted in close proximity (interquartile range, 2-14 days) to other physical distancing measures, such as nonessential business closures and stay-at-home orders, making it difficult to disentangle the potential effect of each intervention. Swiss school closures cut COVID-19 spread: study. Student enrollments in the state-level table and map are NCES’ Fall 2016 data for public schools and Fall 2017 data for private schools. School closures also affect parents’ ability to work. School closures … Maria Puente. All Rights Reserved. The case count resets after the period that the school building is closed consistent with the DOH/PDE guidance on recommended procedures following a case of COVID-19 in a school building.  O, This closure allows time for case investigations, contact tracing, and cleaning and disinfecting to be accomplished prior to the building reopening. Districts may differ in whether they adopt 3 ft or 6 ft of distance between students, the sizes and schedules for class, and countless other public health interventions for which the evidence base in school children for SARS-CoV-2 is limited.  R. Strategies for district leaders to provide a safer and less stressful return to in-person learning. Federal agencies should prioritize funding for research that facilitates rapid learning about which practices are most effective in educational settings. In a year rocked by the coronavirus pandemic, teachers say just keeping their heads above water can feel like a herculean task. To date, the education community has … Pfizer Inc. has announced early results that the COVID-19 vaccine it’s developing with German company BioNTech is 90 percent effective. How Hybrid Learning Is (and Is Not) Working During COVID-19: 6 Case Studies, 'No Going Back' From Remote and Hybrid Learning, Districts Say, Insurgency at the U.S. Capitol: A Dreaded, Real-Life Lesson Facing Teachers, How to Teach the U.S. Capitol Attack: Dozens of Resources to Get You Started, Will New COVID-19 Strains Mean More Cases in Schools? Accessibility Statement, K-12 Virtual Schooling, COVID-19, and Student Success, Erik Black, PhD, MPH; Richard Ferdig, PhD; Lindsay A. Thompson, MD, MS, Operational Considerations on the American Academy of Pediatrics Guidance for K-12 School Reentry, C. Jason Wang, MD, PhD; Henry Bair, BS, BA, Association Between US Statewide School Closure and COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in the US, Katherine A. Auger, MD, MSc; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE; Troy Richardson, PhD; David Hartley, PhD, MPH; Matthew Hall, PhD; Amanda Warniment, MD; Kristen Timmons, MS; Dianna Bosse, BA; Sarah A. Ferris, BA; Patrick W. Brady, MD, MSc; Amanda C. Schondelmeyer, MD, MSc; Joanna E. Thomson, MD, MPH, Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Kenne A. Dibner, PhD; Heidi A. Schweingruber, PhD; Dimitri A. Christakis, MD, MPH. Tue., January 12, 2021, 2:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. What is a coronavirus? Sources: Staff reporting; National Center for Education Statistics; government websites and communications | Click here to view enlarged map. Accessed July 13, 2020. Where Are They Open? All Rights Reserved, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2020;324(9):845-847. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.13092. UNESCO. One way to know what has been lost is through testing, but is it, Thu., January 21, 2021, 2:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. Extrapolating these results to the US population, the authors estimate that school closure may have been associated with 1.37 million fewer cases of COVID-19 over a 26-day period and 40 600 fewer deaths over a 16-day period during the spring of 2020. In partnership with Esri, … All numbers for student enrollment and schools are from the National Center for Education Statistics. Objective: To determine if school closure and its timing were associated with decreased COVID-19 incidence and mortality. School closures were among the most consistently applied of these interventions. Education Week. For more information, see our detailed coverage of the pandemic and its impact on schools.  et al. Total U.S. public and private school enrollments reflect NCES’ 2019 projections. Teresa Vazquez, a teacher in Fort Wayne, Ind., remotely teaches a Spanish 1 class to students at Monroe High School in Albany, Ga. Police hold back pro-Trump rioters who tried to break through a police barrier Jan. 6 at the U.S. Capitol. Our, 2021, 2:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m, Engineering, and distribution in. Recommended that schools remain closed through the end of the pandemic has disrupted lives and schooling for nearly a,. Have suffered immensely, … Glenn Beck shares emotional tale about how COVID-19 school closures al4 the. School District Status Updates for Fall 2020 and not causation ) with other. The best experience views of Education Week would like to know how you are agreeing our. 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