Ramayana (Sanskrit, रामायणम्) je drevna indijska epska poezija, koji govori o borbi božanskog princa Rame da spasi svoju ženu Situ od kralja demona Ravane. In Ramakien, Sita is the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari (thotsakan and montho). Hearing of this, her brothers Khara and Dushan organise an attack against the princes. [56] These include the stone panel at Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh depicting Bharata's meeting with Rama at Chitrakuta (3rd century CE).[56]. [6], Dushan was a man-eating Rakshasa in the Indian Ramayana epic. There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India. The other meaning, which can be found in the Mahabharata, is "pleasing, pleasant, charming, lovely, beautiful". When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni, lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence. Dasharatha, the king of Ayodhya had four queens: Aparajita, Sumitra, Suprabha and Kaikeyi. [citation needed] When Subahu and Maricha again attempted to rain flesh and blood on the sage's yajna, Subahu was killed by Rama. In terms of narrative time, the action of the Ramayana predates the Mahabharata. With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Vasishtha was a Sage and the Guru of King Dasharatha, he used to offer religious advice to the king and the royal family. University of California Press, 2000. [3][4]In Shiv Purana Anjana is stated as the Daughter of Gautama Maharishi and Ahalya. He protected the northern kingdom of Lanka on the mainland and his kingdom bordered the Kosala Kingdom, the kingdom of Rama. Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape (Vanara) citadel Kishkindha. Sampoorna Ramayana (bahasa Indonesia: Ramayana yang Lengkap) adalah sebuah film sejarah India berbahasa Hindi 1961 garapan Babubhai Mistry, yang berdasarkan pada wiracarita Hindu Ramayana karya Valmiki, yang dibintangi oleh Mahipal dan Anita Guha masing-masing sebagai Rama dan Sita.Film tersebut adalah sebuah hit box-office, dan menjadi tonggak sejarah dalam mitologi Hindu. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. She was a cousin of Sita and Urmila. Besides the name of the protagonist of the Ramayana (subject of the current article), the name is also given to other heroes including Parashu-Rama(Bhargava Rama) and Balarama (Bala-Rama). Carita iki nyaritakaké Dèwi Sinta, garwa Sri Rama kang kaculik déning Rahwana Vèrsi. Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga (869,000 years ago) to King Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty. Telugu region i.e. He was deeply devoted to his brother, whom he followed through many dangerous adventures and quests. Manthara is said to be the incarnation of Alakshmi, the eternal consort of Kali Purusha. Later, the fact of Rumā being withheld by Vāli became the primary justification of Rama's slaying Vāli and helping Sugrīva to become the sovereign of Kishkindha. Monkey and The Ramayana; Ramayana: D’harma in the 21st Century; Domination - The Power Shift from Women to Men Through Ancient Literature After escaping the deadly carnage, he instigated Ravana to kidnap Sita, thus indirectly making him one of the masterminds behind the war. Rāma, the name of the central figure of the epic, has two contextual meanings. One day, a female child was found in the field by the King in the deep furrow dug by his plough. She is famed for her virtue and beauty and is regarded as an Avatara of the goddess Lakshmi. A Times of India report dated 18 December 2015 informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata. Brahma mitigated the power of the boon by making Kumbhakarna sleep for six months and being awake for the rest six months of a year (in some versions, he is awake for one day out of the year). Some versions of the epic also describe Hanuman as one of the avatars of Shiva. She married Rama, and loved him so much that she followed him into exile. Rama, after Lakshman's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk. Later on, both the brothers defeat Lakshmana, Bharata (Ramayana), Shatrughan and other warriors and take Hanuman as prisoner. He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. For instance, a king named Janaka appears in a lengthy dialogue in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad with no reference to Rama or the Ramayana. One of his sister was Ravana's mother Kaikashi.[14]. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta. Sita was the wife of Rama. He performed penance for the God Shiva for many years, and in return received a great blessing from God himself that he cannot be killed by any God, demon, or other divine beings. She also had an elder sister Mandavi. The Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana. [41] The Javanese Kakawin Ramayana is not based on Valmiki's epic, which was then the most famous version of Ram's story, but based on Ravanavadha or the "Ravana massacre", which is the sixth or seventh century poem by Indian poet Bhattikavya. He was a younger male cousin of Ravana and the son of Kaikesi's sister Raka. In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Shrutakirti or Shrutakeerti is the daughter of king Kushadhwaja and queen Chandrabhaga. [12], In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses. Cerita epos lainnya adalah Mahabharata. Et ass mat dem Mahabharata dee wichtegsten Text vun der Sanskrit-Literatur. She was the younger daughter of Janaka and the younger sister of Sita and Mandavi. During this fight, Khara lost and was killed by Rama, who also killed his brothers Dushana and Trishiras. Rumā was the wife of Sugrīva. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana, including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha, a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions. La esistencia del Ramayana empieza a ser mentada na mesma dómina que'l Majábharata, aprosimao nel sieglu III a. C. L'escritor bengalí Bhaktivinoda Thakur (1838-1914) afirmaba que foi escritu nel sieglu V a. C. The Ramayana essays are academic essays for citation. Sugriva was a Vanara. However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births. He is mentioned as an ally of Ravana, the antagonist of the epic. A number of plays, movies and television serials have also been produced based upon the Ramayana. The epic history of Lord Ramachandra . Kaikeyi was the third and youngest wife of King Dasharatha, and mother of Bharata. References to the story can be found in the Sangam literature of Akanaṉūṟu,(dated 400BC)[29] and Purananuru (dated 300 BC),[30][31] the twin epics of Silappatikaram (dated 2nd Century CE)[32] and Manimekalai (cantos 5, 17 and 18),[33][34][35] and the Alvar literature of Kulasekhara Alvar, Thirumangai Alvar, Andal and Nammalvar (dated between 5th and 10th Centuries CE). [19] Vishvamitra approached Dasharatha for help in getting rid of these pestilences. Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Login with Gmail. After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journey southward along the banks of river Godavari, where they build cottages and live off the land. Shiva is a great ascetic and often sits in meditation. A. van Nooten, Shirley Triest. He was one of ten sons of Sumali. The company which owns it is known as PT Ramayana Lestari Sentosa founded in 1978 with its main office located in Jakarta. Lord Vishnu expressed his helplessness, so they consulted Saraswathi, the Goddess of education. The name Rama appears repeatedly in Hindu scriptures. He is revered as the Adi Kavi, which means First Poet, for he discovered the first śloka i.e. Ahalya is the wife of the sage Gautama Maharishi. He is a virtuous, strong, and just man in his own right. He was A wise and kind king. Guru Gobind Singh however is known to have written Ram Avatar in a text which is highly debated on its authenticity. The Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. Vibhishana (phiphek), the astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts the death of Ravana from the horoscope of Sita. Rama meanwhile kindly rejected her advances, telling her that he was faithful to his wife Sita and thus would never take another wife. The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman, and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of the South Asian nations of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the South-East Asian countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia and Indonesia. Pored Mahabharata-e, sačinjava osnovu drevne Hindu historijske tradicije pod nazivom Itihasu. The epic tale was picturized on canvas in epic proportions measuring 152 x 823 cm in 9 panels. He was well known for his superior skills in warfare. Login with Facebook He offers to carry Sita back to Ram; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramyana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama – "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Ram". Dhanyamalini was the second wife of Ravana. Dasharatha dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile. Along with Lava, Kusha was the other son of Rama and Sita. M.V.Subrahmanyam,B.A.,B.G.L., Former Registrar AP High Court, 2-31 Chaitanyapuri Colony, Hyderabad 500060 South India Mobile Nos: 9866140619 / 7032823667 Ramayana has also been depicted in many paintings, most notably by the Malaysian artist Syed Thajudeen in 1972. Many Hindu scriptures say that she was seduced by Indra (the king of gods), cursed by her husband for infidelity, and liberated from the curse by Rama (an avatar of the god Vishnu). William Buck, B. He is sometimes depicted as a combination of a Deer and a Man. This performance takes place in a large audience theater setting usually in June, in San Jose, CA. He was the younger brother of Ravana and the elder brother of Vibhisana and Surpanakha. It was composed by sage Valmiki. In the Jain epic of Ramayana, it is not Rama who kills Ravana as told in the Hindu version. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita's attention. She also had a younger sister named Shrutakirti. According to Indian tradition, the Ramayana itself, the epic belongs to the genre of Itihasa like Mahabharata. This Sarga (section) details the stories of Rama's childhood and events related to the time-frame. Ho fortel om livet til prins Rama, ein inkarnasjon av Visjnu, og alt han går gjennom for å redda kona Sita frå demonen Ravana. Rama predicts that Ravana and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell, will attain liberation in their future births. [8][9] The word ayana means travel or journey. He was born to queen Sumitra and was a twin brother of Lakshmana. Kaikashi or Kaikeshi was the wife of sage Vishrava, and mother of Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Vibhishana and Shurpanakha. The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic about Rama and Sita.It is one of the two most important ancient epics of India, the first one being the ancient Mahabharata.The epic was originally written by sage Valmiki of Ancient India.The book has about 96,000 verses and is divided into seven parts. Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki – intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana. Transmigration ramayana characters in telugu wikipedia the central characters of the Ramayana by Kedar Nimkar in Shadja Itihasa [... 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